cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxyocobalamin
Cobalt is a hard gray metal. It’s part of vitamin B-12. This vitamin is essential for making red blood cells. It also maintains the nervous system.
Cobalt is only in the body as a component of vitamin B-12. It’s needed for erythropoiesis. This is the production of red blood cells.
Cobalt has some of the same jobs as manganese and zinc. It can replace manganese in activating several enzymes. These are called biochemical reaction activators. It can also replace zinc in some biochemical reactions.
Cobalt also has a role in the biotin-dependent Krebs-cycle. This is the process that the body uses to break down sugars into energy.
Medically valid uses
Cobalt prevents pernicious anemia. It’s also needed to keep the nervous system working well.
There are no claims based upon cobalt as a single element.
As part of supplements, cobalt is measured in micrograms (mcg). The average adult intake of cobalt is 5–8 mcg per day. A safe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for cobalt hasn’t been set yet.
Trace amounts of cobalt are found in most foods. Foods high in vitamin B-12 are the only source of cobalt used by the body.
It’s best to take cobalt supplements in the form of vitamin B-12.
If you have a cobalt deficiency, this also means you have a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Anemia is a main cause of a cobalt deficiency. This is especially true for pernicious anemia. Symptoms can include numbness, fatigue and tingling in your hand and feet. Over time, the condition also leads to decreased nerve function.
Side effects, toxicity, and interactions
Cobalt is toxic to the heart muscle. It can cause heart muscle disease (toxic cardiomyopathy) after excessive exposure.
An increase in red blood cells (polycythemia) may be a symptom of too much cobalt. Not treating this issue can cause congestive heart failure.
Excessive intake of cobalt may cause enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter). It can also reduce the activity of the thyroid. Cobalt may also increase blood sugar levels.
Since cobalt is a key part of vitamin B-12, people with Leber's syndrome, a rare eye condition, should not take it without talking to their healthcare providers. Some forms of vitamin B-12 may lead to vision loss in people with this issue.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should talk to their healthcare providers before taking any supplements.
There are no known food or drug interactions with cobalt.